The health system of China

发布于 2023-03-28  371 次阅读


2023.4.3英语演讲准备

终于不用负责稿子和ppt了(正在码稿中)

  • 三月二十九号初步完成中文预稿
  • 3.30-3.31组内正在卖力人工翻译中

ChatGPT给出的建议

  • Here are some potential resources and ideas for your health care speech:
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) offers a wealth of information on global health concerns and initiatives, including reports on topics like universal health coverage, mental health, and noncommunicable diseases.//WHO给出的健康标准报道
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides data and insights related to health care in the United States, including statistics on chronic diseases, infectious diseases, and preventive health behaviors.//数据提供方
  • Health policy think tanks like the Kaiser Family Foundation or the Brookings Institution offer research-based analysis on health care issues ranging from access to insurance to prescription drug pricing.
  • Academic journals such as the Journal of Health Economics or the Journal of General Internal Medicine publish studies and meta-analyses on health care delivery models, patient outcomes, and health policy implementation.
  • You can also look into case studies or success stories from health care organizations that have made strides in improving patient care or reducing costs, such as the Mayo Clinic, Geisinger Health System, or Kaiser Permanente.
  • Finally, consider incorporating personal anecdotes or perspectives from individuals affected by health care issues, whether it's a patient who struggled to access treatment or a caregiver who navigated the complexities of the health care system. This can help bring a human element to your speech and make the topic more relatable to your audience.
  • Certainly! Here are some potential slides and talking points you could include in a health care PPT:
  • Title slide: Health Care: Challenges and Opportunities//标题建议
    Introduce your topic and provide an overview of what your presentation will cover.//引入与概览
    The current state of health care:
    Provide statistics on the number of uninsured individuals in your country or region, as well as data on rising health care costs.//提供数据
    Discuss recent legislative changes related to health care and how they may impact patients and providers.
    Access to care://最近的改变与影响
    Discuss common barriers to accessing health care, such as cost, transportation, and lack of insurance coverage.//讨论目前的困难
    Highlight examples of innovative models that have addressed these barriers, such as telehealth programs or community health clinics.//例子
    Quality of care:
    Discuss factors that contribute to quality in health care, such as evidence-based practices, patient-centered approaches, and provider training.
    Highlight examples of health care organizations that have been recognized for high-quality care, such as those that have achieved Magnet status or earned accreditation from the Joint Commiss

中文预稿

引入:

  • 卫生保健系统是为满足目标人群的卫生需求而建立的组织。根据世界卫生组织(WHO)的说法,一个运转良好的医疗保健系统需要一个筹资机制、一支训练有素且报酬充足的劳动力、作为决策和政策基础的可靠信息,以及维护良好的医疗设施以提供高质量的服务。
  • 在世界各国应对自2019年爆发的新冠疫情的情况中我们可以看见中国在保障整体国民健康上具有优于他国的行动能力与政策方案,这一切与中国的医疗保健系统息息相关。
  • 那么我们不禁问,中国的医疗保健系统是如何发展的,它的运转模式是怎么样的以及它相对于其他国家医疗保健系统所有的优点与缺点。

概览

  1. 中国医疗保健系统发展历史
  2. 中国医疗保健系统现代运作
  3. 中国医疗保健系统与他国的不同
  4. 中国医疗保健系统需要改进的地方

发展历史

  • 一个国家的发展始终与这个民族的历史传统分不开,一项事业的建设和改革始终与一个国家的基本国情息息相关。新中国医疗保障体系的发展亦是如此,从经济模式来说,经历了从计划经济体制向市场经济体制转变的过程;从新中国历史分期来说,中国医疗保障体系发展可大致分为:创建时期(1949年~1955年)、探索时期(1956年~1966年)、稳定时期(1966年~1978年)和改革时期(1978年至今)四大历史阶段。
  • 1965年6月26日卫生部部长钱信中向毛泽东汇报工作表示全国140万卫生技术人员有70%在大城市,20%在县城,只有10%在农村,医疗经费农村只占25%,以毛泽东的总结在那段时间卫生部只为了全国人口15%的人服务。在钱信中汇报工作当天毛主席便下发“六二六”指示,决心将中国卫生体系侧重往农村偏移,并且保证大部分人民的医疗服务。在这之后中国建立了各级卫生防疫站以普及医学知识并调用全国社会资源,如中国人通常喝白开水便是这项运动的产物。在那个时期,中国建立了农村合作医疗,农村三级医疗预防保健网以及赤脚医生三项互补互助的制度,让中国能够在极短时间内调用社会资源扑灭天花,霍乱,麻风等传染病,并且大大降低就医成本。
  • 而在1978年中国开始了农村经济体制改革,原本依靠集体经济运作的卫生组织被迅速冲击,加上文化革命反思中“合作医疗”被视作极左产物,此后合作医疗体系逐渐解体,预防保健等基本卫生服务提供不足,多种传染病重新抬头医疗费用也在这个时期猛增,百姓因病致贫,因病返贫的现象日益突出,在各方强烈要求下合作医疗体系逐渐恢复,然而历史折点来到了1992年——十四大确立社会主义市场经济体系改革目标,药物卫生系统被列为国有企业又导致合作医疗制度被完全否定。
  • 2000年初,随着李昌平的上书和温铁军的建言,国家重新重视医疗保健基层问题,2003年新型农村合作医疗体系重开试点。
  • 2020年由于疫情中暴露出的医疗系统问题,习近平署名文章《构建起强大的公共卫生体系为维护人民健康提供强有力的保障》要求要完善疾病预防,开展爱国运动等,这是1966年到1978年中国卫生体系所做的事情,我们丢失了太长时间,如今我们又将将它捡起来。

现代运作

目前医疗保障制度构成

  • 76.40%为自费医疗
  • 6.22%为劳保医疗
  • 5.44%为合作医疗
  • 4.95%为公费医疗
  • 其他

从前面的医疗历史讲述中我们不难理解为什么现在国内医疗保障制度以自费医疗为主。自1992年经济体系改革,提供个人医疗服务成为公共医疗体系主要工作,公共医疗体系不再强调满足人民群众的基本健康需求,也不注重以群众运动来推行公共卫生,越来越单纯地注重医疗技术。

中国医疗保健运作还有以下特点

  • 市场经济在中国医疗保健系统当中也逐渐起到关键作用。由私企或政府投资的保险公司在1979年决定复业停办20多年的保险业务后在国民医疗体系中的权重逐渐增加。
  • 医疗费用的抵消。在中国看病,我们需要自己承担费用,然而如果我们缴纳过社会保险,那么可以借以社会保险制度来报销大部分的费用,例如在深圳拥有社会保险看病费用可以抵消90%,然而部分项目如进口药物是无法报销的。
  • 我国的医疗服务机构90%以上为公立医疗机构,以政府注入资金为主要,但也在逐渐与市场商业接轨从而医院机构自行获取利润来支撑医疗服务。

中国现代医疗保健系统的构成

2020 年 2月 25 日,中共中央国务院发布《关于深化医疗保障制度改革的意见》,要求到 2030 年,全面建成以基本医疗保险为主体,医疗救助为托底,补充医疗保险、商业健康保险、慈善捐赠、医疗互助共同发展的多层次医疗保障制度体系,明确了补充医疗保险和商业健康保险的系统定位。可以看出我国目前的医疗保健系统由市场经济与国家政府共同支撑建立。

与他国的医疗保健系统的比较

就诊机制

  • 你是否注意到,在新冠疫情期间有这样的一种新闻,讲国外的病人预约医生耽误了许多时间。在许多国家诊断疾病服务的预约一般会花费一星期以上的时间,这对疾病的治疗是有很大的弊端的。而在中国基本不用担心有预约时间长的问题,从看病确诊到开始治疗的时间并不会太长。
  • 此外,在国外如果病情不是非常严重那么病人需要先通过诊所或者家庭医生来判断的疾病种类,之后再被转诊到相应的医院才行。而在中国,病人可以直接先根据自己的症状来判断选择对应的专治医院,从而省略了转诊的过程。

就医服务

  • 在英美等国家,在医院就医医院会提供一切饮食和人工的服务,而在中国这大部分是需要家人来完成的。然而这是由于就医费用倾向的妥协。
  • 医疗服务资源。在中国城市与乡镇医院的医疗配备水平并不相同,这大多来源于中国不同地区的医护工资不同,且医院设备不同,而在世界上许多国家各地区的医护基本工资基本齐平,各地区专科服务也基本一致。

看病费用

  • 在英美等国家看病似乎不需要支付费用,但实际上在平时的工资税务克扣中会有一部分被用于支持社会医疗服务中,而且在就医过程中所需要的任何药物仪器等需要病人自掏腰包。如前面所提到的,在中国看病大多可项目以通过一些社保或者医保抵消费用,因此整体上在中国看病所需要的费用是远远低于国外的。但是这也导致了医院通过诊治病人获得的利润微乎其微。
  • 你可能听说过如果没钱在国外不敢随随便便叫急救车,因为急救车花费很高。这是由于外国的医疗过程中大部分人工成本需要病人自行支付。国外是以账单上的数字买服务,而我国则是通过专项拨款来提供社会医疗服务,统一监督管理,具有低价优质的社会福利属性。

中国医疗保健系统需要改进的地方

中国的医疗保健系统注重保证大多数人的健康水平,因此国家通过各种政策以及医疗数字化来确保基本上所有人都能支付得起医疗费用且能够及时得到诊治。然而自从改革开放之后医疗保健系统重心从预防保健转移到提供医疗服务,基层看病致贫问题以及医疗商业化问题也十分醒目。

  1. 医护薪资问题。自2009年开始,中国陆续进行了几次医疗改革,然而医护薪资低始终问题存在,这与医改要求的高精尖人才培养成本高是具有尖锐的矛盾。
  2. 医患信任危机。根据国家卫健委医政医管局相关人士公布的数据显示,在中国,医疗纠纷呈现数量连续递增的高发态势,2013年达到最高峰12.6万件。近几年来全国医疗纠纷有所下降,但医患矛盾的尖锐对立没有根本改变。
  3. 基层看病致贫问题。世卫驻中国代表施贺德2016年8月20日指出使人民都能负担得起医疗保健服务是中国政府的重要目标。但中国的医疗体制中存在腐败问题,病患则经常因为保险涵盖的范围有限,得自掏腰包支付大笔金额。
  4. 过分依赖西方技术。中国科学院士徐涛在2021年12月5日的科技创新大会指出在医疗器械上,中国是全球仅次于美国的第二大医疗器械市场,但由于相关基础学科和制造工艺的部署,医疗器械产业中高端产品及关键零部件主要依赖进口。“像ECMO这样的高端医疗器械在这次疫情的重症救治中发挥着重要作用。但它的核心技术主要掌握在美国、德国和日本等国家手中。”
  5. 医疗资源分配不均:医疗资源集中在大城市大医院,而小城市小医院能治疗的疾病有限,有的小医院的手术室根本达不到手术需要的消毒灭菌要求,人们都趋向于求医于名医名医院甚至只是简单的感冒发烧的都要去大医院挂号于名医,导致大医院人满为患小医院门可罗雀。

中国的医疗保健系统从诞生致今以保障大部分人民的健康为首要目标,就凭这一点已经算在世界国家前列了。几轮医改下来中国的医疗保健系统正在不断地进步更新,就在这几年我国也正在努力去除“以药养医”的旧制度。然而距离面相大众的低价优质且资源分布平均的理想化医疗保健系统仍然有一段距离。这就需要政府持续的政策支持与人民大众的理解。

英文稿件

Introduction:

A health care system is an organization established to meet the health needs of a target population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and well-compensated workforce, reliable information as a basis for decision-making and policy, and well-maintained medical facilities to provide high-quality services.

In the world's response to the outbreak of COVID-19 since 2019, we can see that China has better action ability and policy programs than other countries in protecting the overall health of the people, all of which are closely related to China's health care system. So we can't help but ask, how has China's health care system developed, what is its mode of operation, and all its advantages and disadvantages compared with other countries'health care systems.

Overview

  • History of the Development of China's Health Care System
  • Modern Operation of China's Health Care System
  • Differences between China and Other Countries Areas
  • Where China's health care system needs to be improved

History of development

The development of a country is always inseparable from the historical traditions of the nation, and the construction and reform of a cause is always closely related to the basic national conditions of a country. The same is true of the development of the medical security system in New China.

As far as the economic model is concerned, it has undergone a process of transformation from a planned economic system to a market economic system. In terms of the historical stages of New China, the development of China's medical security system can be roughly divided into four historical stages: the founding period (1949-1955), the exploration period (1956-1966), the stable period (1966-1978) and the reform period (1978-present).

On June 26, 1965, Qian Xinzhong, Minister of Health, reported to Mao Zedong that 70% of the 1.4 million health technicians in the country were in big cities, 20% were in county towns, only 10% were in rural areas, and only 25% of the medical expenditure was in rural areas. According to Mao Zedong's summary, during that period, the Ministry of Health only served 15% of the national population. On the day of Qian's letter, Chairman Mao issued the "June 26" directive, determined to shift the focus of China's health system to rural areas and ensure medical services for the majority of the people. Since then, China has established health and epidemic prevention stations at all levels to popularize medical knowledge and mobilize social resources throughout the country. For example, Chinese people usually drink boiled water, which is the product of this campaign. During that period, China established three complementary systems of rural cooperative medical care, rural three-level medical prevention and health care network and barefoot doctors, which enabled China to mobilize social resources to eradicate smallpox, cholera, leprosy and other infectious diseases in a very short time, and greatly reduced the cost of medical treatment.

In 1978, China began the reform of rural economic system, the health organizations that originally relied on collective economic operation were rapidly impacted, and the "cooperative medical care" was regarded as the product of the extreme left in the reflection of the cultural revolution. Since then, the cooperative medical care system has gradually disintegrated, basic health services such as preventive health care are inadequate, and medical expenses for various infectious diseases have risen again. The phenomenon that the common people become poor due to illness and return to poverty due to illness has become increasingly prominent. Under the strong demand of all parties, the cooperative medical system has been gradually restored.

However, the historical turning point has come to 1992, when the 14th National Congress established the goal of reforming the socialist market economic system, and the drug and health system was listed as a state-owned enterprise, which led to the complete negation of the cooperative medical system.

At the beginning of 2000, with Li Changping's letter and Wen Tiejun's suggestion, the state paid more attention to the grass-roots problems of medical care, and the pilot project of the new rural cooperative medical system was reopened in 2003. In 2020, due to the problems of the medical system exposed in the epidemic, 's signed article "Building a Strong Public Health System to Provide a Strong Guarantee for People's Health" calls for improving disease prevention and carrying out patriotic campaigns, which is what the Chinese health system did from 1966 to 1978. Now we will pick it up again.

Modern operation At present

The composition of the medical security system

  • 76.40% for self-paid medical care,
  • 6.22% for labor insurance medical care,
  • 5.44% for cooperative medical care and 4.95% for free medical care.

From the previous medical history, we can easily understand why the current domestic medical security system is mainly self-paid medical care. Since the reform of the economic system in 1992, the provision of personal medical services has become the main task of the public medical system. The public medical system no longer emphasizes meeting the basic health needs of the people, nor pays attention to promoting public health through mass movements, but pays more and more attention to medical technology.

China's health care operation also has the following characteristics:

  • Market economy has gradually played a key role in China's health care system. Insurance companies, which are privately or government-funded, have gradually increased their weight in the national health system since they decided to resume their business in 1979 after more than 20 years of suspension.
  • Offset of medical expenses. To see a doctor in China, we need to pay for our own expenses. However, if we have paid social insurance, we can use the social insurance system to reimburse most of the expenses. For example, having social insurance in Shenzhen can offset 90% of the medical expenses, but some items such as imported drugs can not be reimbursed.
  • More than 90% of the medical service institutions in China are public medical institutions, which are mainly funded by the government, but they are also gradually in line with the commercial market, so that hospitals can make profits to support medical services.

The composition of China's modern healthcare system

On February 25, 2020, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Medical Security System, which calls for the establishment of a comprehensive medical insurance system with basic medical insurance as the main body and medical assistance as the base by 2030. The multi-level medical security system of supplementary medical insurance, commercial health insurance, charitable donation and mutual medical assistance has clearly defined the systematic orientation of supplementary medical insurance and commercial health insurance. It can be seen that the current health care system in China is supported by the market economy and the national government.

Compared with the health care system of other countries

Visit mechanism

  • Have you noticed that during the COVID-19 epidemic, there is a news that patients abroad have delayed a lot of time to make an appointment with a doctor. In many countries, an appointment for a diagnosis service usually takes more than a week, which is a big disadvantage for the treatment of the disease. In China, there is basically no need to worry about the long appointment time. The time from diagnosis to treatment will not be too long.
  • In addition, in foreign countries, if the condition is not very serious, the patient needs to first judge the type of disease through the clinic or family doctor, and then be referred to the corresponding hospital. In China, patients can directly choose the corresponding hospital according to their symptoms, thus omitting the referral process.

Medical services

  • Medical services in Britain, the United States and other countries, in the hospital, the hospital will provide all the food and labor services, while in China, most of this is done by family members. However, this is due to the compromise of medical expenses.
  • Medical service resources. In China, the level of medical equipment in urban and township hospitals is not the same, which is mostly due to the different salaries of doctors and nurses in different regions of China, and the different hospital equipment.

Medical expenses

In many countries in the world, the basic salaries of doctors and nurses in different regions are basically the same, and the specialized services in different regions are basically the same. In countries such as Britain and the United States, it seems that there is no need to pay for medical treatment, but in fact, part of the usual salary tax deduction will be used to support social medical services, and any medicines and equipment needed in the process of medical treatment need to be paid by patients themselves. As mentioned earlier, most of the medical treatment in China can be offset by some social security or medical insurance, so the overall cost of medical treatment in China is far lower than that in foreign countries. But as a result, hospitals make little profit from treating patients.

You may have heard that if you don't have money, you dare not call an ambulance casually in a foreign country, because the cost of an ambulance is very high. This is because most of the labor costs in the medical process in foreign countries need to be paid by the patients themselves. Foreign countries buy services with the figures on the bill, while China provides social medical services through special funding, unified supervision and management, with low-cost and high-quality social welfare attributes.

What China's healthcare system needs to improve

China's healthcare system focuses on ensuring the health of the majority of people, so the state has adopted various policies and digitalization of medical care to ensure that basically all people can afford medical care and get timely treatment. However, since the reform and opening up, the focus of the health care system has shifted from preventive health care to the provision of medical services, and the problems of poverty caused by primary health care and medical commercialization are also very striking.

  1. The issue of medical and nursing salaries. Since 2009, China has carried out several health care reforms, but the low salary of doctors and nurses has always been a problem, which is in sharp contradiction with the high cost of training high-quality talents required by the health care reform.
  2. Doctor-patient trust crisis. According to the data released by the Medical Administration of the State Health and Health Commission, the number of medical disputes in China has increased continuously, reaching a peak of 126,000 in 2013. In recent years, medical disputes in China have declined, but the sharp opposition between doctors and patients has not changed fundamentally.
  3. The problem of poverty caused by medical treatment at the grass-roots level. On August 20, 2016, Bernhard Schwartlander, the who representative in China, pointed out that making health care services affordable to the people is an important goal of the Chinese government. But China's health care system is plagued by corruption, and patients often have to pay large sums of money out of their own pockets because of limited insurance coverage.
  4. Relying too much on Western technology. Xu Tao, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, pointed out at the Science and Technology Innovation Conference on December 5, 2021 that China is the second largest medical device market in the world after the United States, but due to the deployment of related basic disciplines and manufacturing processes, high-end products and key components in the medical device industry mainly rely on imports. "High-end medical devices like ECMO play an important role in the severe treatment of this epidemic.". But its core technology is mainly in the hands of the United States, Germany and Japan.
  5. Uneven distribution of medical resources: medical resources are concentrated in large hospitals in big cities, while the diseases that can be treated in small hospitals in small cities are limited. The operating rooms of some small hospitals simply cannot meet the disinfection and sterilization requirements for surgery. People tend to seek medical treatment from famous doctors and hospitals, and even those who simply have a cold and fever have to go to large hospitals to register with famous doctors. As a result, large hospitals are overcrowded and small hospitals are empty.

China's health care system has been in the forefront of the world since its birth, with the primary goal of protecting the health of most people. After several rounds of medical reform, China's health care system is constantly improving and updating, and in recent years, China is also trying to get rid of the old system of "supporting doctors with drugs". However, there is still a long way to go for an ideal health care system with low price, high quality and evenly distributed resources. This requires sustained policy support from the government and the understanding of the people.


译稿

一.引入

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well functioning healthcare system requires a funding mechanism, a trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information as a basis for decision-making and policy, and maintaining good medical facilities to provide high-quality services.


In the world's response to the COVID-19 that broke out in 2019, we can see that China has superior action capabilities and policy plans to other countries in safeguarding the overall national health, which is closely related to China's health care system.


So we can't help but ask how China's healthcare system has developed, what is its operating mode, and all its advantages and disadvantages compared to other countries' healthcare systems.


Development history of China's healthcare system
Modern Operation of China's Healthcare System
The difference between China's healthcare system and other countries
Areas for improvement in China's healthcare system

二.发展历史Development history of China's healthcare system


1.四个阶段:From the perspective of the historical stages of New China, the development of China's medical security system can be roughly divided into four historical stages: the founding period (1949 to 1955), the exploration period (1956 to 1966), the stable period (1966 to 1978), and the reform period (1978 to the present).
2.例子:626计划:Chairman Mao issued a "626" instruction, determined to shift the focus of China's health system towards rural areas and ensure medical services for the majority of the people . During that period, China established three complementary and mutually supportive systems, namely, rural cooperative medical care, rural three-level medical prevention and health care networks, and barefoot doctors.
例子:In 2003, the pilot of the new rural cooperative medical system was reopened.

三.现代运作Modern Operation of China's Healthcare System

1.数据例子:

  • 76.40% for self funded medical care
  • 6.22% for labor insurance and medical treatment
  • 5.44% are cooperative medical care.
  • 4.95% for public health care
  • Other


Since the economic system reform in 1992, the provision of personal medical services has become the main task of the public medical system. The public medical system no longer emphasizes meeting the basic health needs of the people, nor does it focus on promoting public health through mass movements, but increasingly focuses solely on medical technology.

2.China's healthcare operations also have the following characteristics

  • ①The market economy is also gradually playing a key role in China's healthcare system.
  • ②Offset of medical expenses. In China, we need to bear the cost of seeing a doctor ourselves. However, if we have paid social insurance, we can use the social insurance system to reimburse most of the expenses. For example, having social insurance in Shenzhen can offset 90% of the cost of seeing a doctor, but some projects such as imported drugs cannot be reimbursed.
  • ③The composition of China's modern healthcare system: the "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Medical Security System", requesting that by 2030, a multi-level medical security system with basic medical insurance as the main body, medical assistance as the foundation, and the common development of supplementary medical insurance, commercial health insurance, charitable donations, and medical mutual assistance be fully established, clarifying the systematic positioning of supplementary medical insurance and commercial health insurance. More than 90% of China's medical service institutions are public medical institutions, mainly funded by the government, but they are also gradually integrating with market commerce, allowing hospitals to earn profits on their own to support medical services.

四.与他国的医疗保健系统的比较The difference between China's healthcare system and other countries

①Visit mechanism


Did you notice that during the COVID-19 epidemic, there was a news that foreign patients wasted a lot of time making appointments with doctors. In many countries, appointments for diagnostic services typically take more than a week, which has significant drawbacks for the treatment of diseases. In China, there is basically no need to worry about having a long appointment time, and the time from seeing a doctor for diagnosis to starting treatment will not be too long.
In addition, in foreign countries, if the condition is not very serious, the patient needs to first determine the type of disease through a clinic or family doctor be

fore being referred to the corresponding hospital. In China, patients can directly choose the corresponding specialized hospital based on their own symptoms, thereby omitting the process of referral.

②Medical services

In countries such as the United States and the United States, hospitals provide all dietary and manual services when seeking medical treatment, while in China, most of this requires family members to complete. However, this is due to a compromise in the tendency towards medical expenses.

③Medical service resources.

The level of medical equipment in urban and township hospitals in China is not the same, mostly due to the differences in medical salaries and hospital equipment in different regions of China. In many countries and regions around the world, the basic medical salaries are basically the same, and the specialized services in various regions are also basically the same.

④Medical expenses

In countries such as the United States and the United States, it seems that there is no need to pay for medical treatment, but in fact, a portion of the usual salary tax deduction will be used to support social medical services, and any drugs and instruments needed during the medical treatment process need to be paid by the patient themselves. As mentioned earlier, most medical visits in China can be itemized to offset costs through some social insurance or medical insurance, so the overall cost of seeing a doctor in China is far lower than abroad. However, this has also led to minimal profits for hospitals through the treatment of patients.

You may have heard that if you don't have money, you dare not call an ambulance casually abroad because the cost of an ambulance is very high. This is due to the fact that most of the labor costs in foreign medical processes require patients to pay for them themselves. In foreign countries, services are purchased based on the figures on the bill, while in China, social medical services are provided through special allocations, unified supervision and management, and have a low cost and high-quality social welfare attribute.

五.中国医疗保健系统需要改进的地方Areas for improvement in China's healthcare system

China's healthcare system focuses on ensuring the health level of the majority of people, so the country adopts various policies and medical digitization to ensure that almost everyone can afford medical expenses and receive timely treatment. However, since the reform and opening up, the focus of the health care system has shifted from preventive care to the provision of medical services, and the issue of poverty caused by grassroots medical care and the commercialization of medical care is also very prominent.

  • ①.The issue of medical salaries. Since 2009, China has successively carried out several medical reforms, but the problem of low medical and nursing salaries has always existed, which has a sharp contradiction with the high cost of cultivating high-quality and cutting-edge talents required by the medical reform.
  • ②.Doctor-patient trust crisis. According to data released by relevant personnel from the Medical Administration Bureau of the National Health Commission, medical disputes in China have shown a continuously increasing trend of high incidence, reaching a peak of 126000 cases in 2013. In recent years, medical disputes have decreased nationwide, but the sharp opposition between doctors and patients has not fundamentally changed.
  • ③.Poverty caused by medical treatment at the grassroots level. On August 20, 2016, WHO Representative to China Shi Hede pointed out that making health care services affordable for the people is an important goal of the Chinese government. However, there is a problem of corruption in China's medical system, and patients often have to pay large sums of money out of their own pockets due to the limited coverage of insurance.
  • ④.Overreliance on Western technology. At the Science and Technology Innovation Conference on December 5, 2021, Chinese academician Xu Tao pointed out that in terms of medical devices, China is the world's second largest medical device market after the United States. However, due to the deployment of relevant basic disciplines and manufacturing processes, the high-end products and key components of the medical device industry mainly rely on imports. "High-end medical devices such as ECMO play an important role in the severe treatment of this epidemic. However, its core technology is mainly in the hands of countries such as the United States, Germany, and Japan."
  • ⑤.Uneven distribution of medical resources: Medical resources are concentrated in large hospitals in large cities, while small hospitals in small cities can treat limited diseases. Some operating rooms in small hospitals simply do not meet the disinfection and sterilization requirements required for surgery. People tend to seek medical attention from well-known hospitals, even simple ones with colds and fever. They have to register with famous doctors in large hospitals, leading to overcrowding in large hospitals and the lack of access to small hospitals.

六,总结:

China's healthcare system has been among the top countries in the world for its primary goal of ensuring the health of most people since its birth. After several rounds of medical reform, China's health care system is constantly improving and updating. In recent years, China is also striving to eliminate the old system of "relying on medicine to support medicine". However, there is still a distance from an ideal healthcare system that is affordable, high-quality, and evenly distributed in resources. This requires sustained policy support from the government and the understanding of the people.